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Archive for the ‘Military Leaders’ Category

Adolf Hitler Biography

Posted On September 16th, 2013 By Celebrity Biographies

Adolf Hitler Biography

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler was one of the most influential human voices and the founder of the Nazi party. He implemented and executed the Holocaust, the systematic execution and racial extermination of over 6 million European Jews, along with millions of other non-Aryans. Hitler was the Supreme Commander and Head of State of the Armed Forces, the “Fuhrer” or the guiding spirit of Germany’s Third Reich for 12 years, from 1933 to 1945.

Early Life

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 to Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Poelzl in Braunau Am Inn, Austria. His father was a 52-year-old customs official whereas his mother was a young peasant girl and his father’s third wife. As a child, Hitler was discontented, resentful, lazy and extremely moody. He was extremely hostile towards the strict rules set by his father. His mother was his only support, until she died of cancer in 1908.

He was a very good student and spent four years at a school in Realschule, Linz. At the age of 16, he left school with a dream of becoming a painter. He left home in October 1907 and went to Vienna to become an artist. The rejection at the Viennese Academy of Arts embittered young Hitler and he shaped this pathological hatred towards the modern Habsburg monarchy, liberalism, Marxists and Jews. From switching odd jobs to hawking sketches in taverns, Hitler would vent out his frustration to anyone who cared to listen to his ideas about a better Germany.

While living in Vienna, he got his first degree in politics, studying the demagogic ideologies of Karl Lueger, a popular Christian-social Mayor.

World War I

Hitler left Vienna in May 1913 and he joined the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment when the war was declared in August 1914. Although he started off as a dispatch runner, he proved to be courageous and received the Iron Cross (the second class award) for bravery. H continued to work as a soldier, but was severely injured by a grenade splinter in August 1918. He was then given the second Iron Cross (the first class award). Hitler was temporary blinded by a massive gas attack in October 1918. While convalescing in a hospital, he received the news that the war had ended and Germany was defeated. His resentment, anger and feelings of betrayal later shaped the times to come.

Rise As A Politician

After the end of the World War I, a lot of Germans felt betrayed by the government with their unexpected and sudden surrender. The after-effects of this war, including inflation, unemployment and daily struggle made it extremely difficult for average Germans to survive. In 1919, Hitler was appointed to work as a spy for an army organization. His duties were strictly “educational” and he was supposed to check on the rapidly increasing local political societies. While working on these groups, he liked one of them in September 1919. He enrolled into the group and was appointed as the 55th member. Hitler was soon leading the group.

Hitler As A Leader

Hitler possessed an amazing talent for oratory and he could slowly gather masses to follow him. Later, he introduced the new party symbol. By November 1921, Hitler was declared the “Fuhrer” and his movement had more than 3000 followers. Within 2 years, Hitler was confident that the Weimar Republic was about to collapse. Along with other nationalist groups and General Ludendorff, he made efforts to overthrow the Swiss Government in Munich. This is when the “Red Berlin” movement came into existence.

The Coup

Adolf Hitler strongly believed that he could create a stronger government in Germany and bring back the lost pride. So on November 9, 1923, he attempted a coup of the government, also called the “Beer Hall Putsch”. The mission failed and eventually, Hitler was sentenced imprisonment for five years. He was moved to the Landsberg prison and was released in nine months. He used this time to formulate future strategies and penned his book, which is now one of the all-time bestsellers, called “Mein Kampf”.

Rise To Power

After being released from the prison, he started on his path to attain ultimate power. Hitler wanted to compete for the presidential elections and by July 1932, he had acquired enough support to run the campaign. However he lost these elections against Paul Von Hindenburg, who later appointed Hitler as the chancellor on January 30, 1933. After the death of president Hindenburg in 1935, Hitler served as both, the chancellor as well as the president. He combined both these positions into one and the supreme leader was now referred to as the “Fuhrer”.

After gaining such power, Hitler started solidifying his position in Germany on legal terms. All those who disagreed with his proceedings were put into harsh concentration camps. Hitler ran massive campaigns to strengthen the German pride and blamed all their problems on Jews and Communists. The whole idea of “pan-Germanism” inspired him to combine the German population from all countries across Europe.

World War II

The world wanted to stay away from the possibility of another World War, however Hitler invaded Austria in 1938, without any battle. When his forces entered Poland, the world could no longer stand his domination and the World War II began in 1939. In addition to Nuremberg Laws and Kristallnacht, the Nazi party created an extensive system to eliminate the Jews from the German society.

Adolf Hitler is considered to be one of the most evil human beings in the history, especially because of the Holocaust. The Nazi party seemed unbeatable until the Battle of the Stalingrad in 1943. The Allied Army destroyed the German forces and Hitler was defeated.

Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun, his long-time mistress, on April 29, 1945. They both wrote their political testament and the last will. The next day, on April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler committed suicide with his wife Eva Braun.


Genghis Khan Biography

Posted On July 1st, 2010 By Celebrity Biographies

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan

In about less than a century, Genghis Khan and his followers built the largest kingdom in the world. This empire was later exceeded by the British in the late 19th century. Through brute force, spiritual mission and cunning diplomacy, Genghis Khan united the irreconcilable Mongols and then began his journey to the east and west of Asia, conquering major regions of Asia. By 1280 AD, the Mongol empire stretched from the Yellow Sea in China to the Mediterranean Sea, covering a total of 12 million miles.

Early Life

Genghis Khan was originally called ‘Temüjin’ and was born in 1162. Due to the lack of modern-day records, there is very little information on the early life of Genghis Khan. He was born in a Mongol Tribe near Kherlen and Onon River, besides the Burkhan Khaldun Mountain, located in the contemporary Mongolia. According to the history of Mongols, it is believed that young Temüjin had a blood clot grasped in his hand, which is considered as a traditional sign that he was born to become a leader. The name suggests that he may perhaps have descended from a blacksmith family. His father’s name was ‘Yesükhei’ and his mother’s name was ‘Hoelun’. His father was a chieftain of the ‘Borjigin’ clan and therefore Genghis belonged to a noble background. Since he belonged to a higher social status, it made it easier for him to solicit help from the other Mongol tribes and consolidate them.

There are no accurate portraits of this Mongol leader; however the legendary ancestors suggest that he was tall, red-haired, green-eyed and long-bearded. At the age of nine, Temüjin was taken to another tribe by his father, so as to find him a wife. While returning, Yesugei (Temüjin’s father) was killed by the Tatars. Young Temüjin and his family were abandoned by his father’s followers. They were forced to live in difficult conditions where they survived by fishing and hunting. For the next few years, the family lived in poverty. During one of the hunting excursions, at the age of 13, Temüjin eliminated his half-brother called Bekhter over a fight. After this incident, Temüjin was considered as the head of the family. His mother gave him several important lessons about the existing political conditions in Mongolia and the need for alliance.

Personal Life & Children

As arranged by his deceased father, at the age of 16, Temüjin married a young woman called ‘Borte’ of the ‘Olkut’ hun tribe. This led to an alliance between the two tribes and Borte had four sons out of this marriage. Ghenghis Khan is known to have many more children from his other wives, but none of them were included in his succession. There are no existing records of any daughters. His religion is widely considered to be Tengriism or Shamanism that is usually followed by the nomad tribes of Asia. He was known to be religiously tolerant and took moral or philosophical lessons from other religions as well. During his conquer; he often consulted Muslim merchants, Christian monasteries as well as a Taoist monk called Qui Chuji.

Rise to Power

Temüjin started attracting followers who appreciated him during battles. He became a follower of a Christian tribe chieftain called Toghril in Central Mongolia. Along with Toghril and a young chief called Jamuka, Temüjin was able to rescue his wife. Soon after his wedding, his wife Borte was kidnapped by the Merkits, a prominent tribe in Russia (this tribe is existent until today). Quite a few Mongol princes considered Temüjin as their ruler and then presented him with the title ‘Cheengiz Khan’ (Genghis Khan) which meant ‘the sole ruler of the ocean’. Toghril and Genghis Khan helped North China in their batter against Tatars and emerged successful.

Soon relations between Toghril and Genghis Khan became worse, which led to the open war between them. After being defeated in their first battle, Genghis Khan took abode in some remote areas of northeast Mongolia. 1n, 1203, he fought another battle with Toghril and defeated him. Thereafter, Toghril was killed by the Naimans and his tribe was united with the Mongols. Genghis Khan started his journey in West Mongolia, along with his associates, defeated his enemies including Jamuka, the Naimans and the Merkits in 1204. All the tribes were merged together and Genghis Khan was proclaimed as the supreme ruler.

Invasion of China & Afghanistan

Along with invading and conquering, Genghis Khan did more than that. He established some rules for his empire as well as introduced a written language for his people. He set up a basic postal service, so as to communicate with the different parts of his empire. Above all, he was a great military leader. In the year 1211, the Mongols assaulted China and invaded the north region of the ‘Great Wall’.

Thereafter, he started his hunt for Sultan Muhammad of Khiva. The Sultan possessed major parts of Central Asia, along with Afghanistan and major portions of Persia. It was a matter of time before the two empires clashed against each other. The Sultan fled across Persia and was killed near the Caspian Sea. By 1220, he expanded his empire across the west by defeating the Sultan of Afghanistan. After concluding his campaign in the west, he returned back to Mongolia. Around 1226, Genghis Khan resumed war against the Tibetan tribe called Tanguts. He died on 25th August 1227, in the Liupan Mountains of Kansu, while the war was still in progress.

Death

Genghis Khan wanted to be buried without any markings, following the traditions of his tribe. After his death, his body was returned to his birthplace in Mongolia. Many suspect that he is buried close to the Onon River. The Genghis Khan Mausoleum was created years after his death and is not his burial site. If we were to believe the folklore, it is said that the river was diverted on his grave so that it becomes impossible to locate his burial site. Some stories also suggest that his grave was stamped by several horses and numerous trees were planted over it. According to the Mongol tradition, the youngest son would inherit the father’s property and hence his army was divided accordingly.


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