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Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man of India

Posted On January 25th, 2023 By Celebrity Biographies

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, also known as the “Missile Man of India,” was a renowned scientist and the 11th President of India, serving from 2002-2007. He was born on October 15, 1931, in the small village of Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India. He came from a humble background and had to work hard to achieve success in his life.

Early Life and Education

Dr. Kalam was the youngest of five siblings, and his father was a boat owner. Despite financial difficulties, his family placed a strong emphasis on education. Kalam completed his early education in Rameswaram and later graduated in Physics from St. Joseph’s College, Trichy in 1954. He then went on to study aerospace engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology, graduating in 1960.

Career in Aerospace Engineering

After completing his education, Dr. Kalam joined the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. He worked on the development of the country’s first indigenous satellite launch vehicle, SLV-3, which was successfully launched in 1980. He also played a key role in the development of the Prithvi and Agni missile systems. In recognition of his contributions, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 by the Government of India.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Presidency

In 2002, Dr. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India, becoming the first scientist and the first bachelor to hold office. During his presidency, he was known for his focus on the development of science and technology, education, and the welfare of the poor. He also worked to promote the use of technology for the betterment of society and was known for his emphasis on the need for a strong, developed, and self-reliant India. He was also a strong advocate for the “Youth of India” and emphasized the importance of providing opportunities for their growth and development.

During his presidency, Dr. Kalam launched several initiatives such as the “India Vision 2020” which aimed at making India a developed nation by 2020, the “Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana” which aimed at providing all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages, and the “Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana” which aimed at promoting self-employment opportunities in rural areas. He also played a key role in the nuclear tests in Pokhran in 1998, which established India as a nuclear power.


After his presidency, Dr. Kalam returned to his first love, teaching. He was a visiting professor at several universities and also established the “Kalam Centre for Scientific Policy and Research” in 2011. He also wrote several books, including his autobiography “Wings of Fire” and “Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India.”

Death Of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Dr. Kalam passed away on July 27, 2015, due to a cardiac arrest while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management, Shillong. His death was mourned by the nation, and he was accorded a state funeral with full state honors.

Legacy Of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s legacy lives on through his contributions to the field of science and technology, his emphasis on education, and his efforts to make India a developed nation. He continues to be an inspiration to many, especially the youth of India.


  1. “A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.” Encyclopedia Britannica.
  2. “Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.” India President.
  3. “A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.” The Hindu.
  4. “Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Visionary and Inspiration.” The New Indian Express.
  5. “A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: A Life.” BBC News.

Al Gore Biography

Posted On September 29th, 2013 By Celebrity Biographies

Al Gore Biography

Al Gore

Al Gore is a former vice president of USA, who has served in The House as well as The Senate. He is the chairman of “Current TV”, an independently run, an award winning cable and satellite television network for young adults. It is a non-fiction network, solely based on citizen journalism and viewer-created content. He also leads a firm called the “Generation Investment Management”, focusing on a new method to sustainable investment.

Gore is a senior advisor to Google and is a member of the directory board of Apple. He chairs a non-profit organization, which works towards solutions for climate crisis, called “The Alliance For Climate Protection” and is a visiting professor at the MTSU (Middle Tennessee State University).

Gore was elected to the US Senate in 1984 and 1990 whereas he was elected for the House of Representatives in 1976, 1978, 1980 and 1982. On January 20, 1993, he was pledged as the 45th vice president of United States and served a term of 8 years. During his tenure, Gore was also a core member of Bill Clinton’s economic department. He served as a Cabinet member, member of the National Security Council, President of the Senate and headed a series of Administrative campaigns.

He became the subject of an Oscar-winning documentary and is an author of the bestsellers “An Inconvenient Truth” and “Earth In The Balance”. Along with the Intergovernmental Panel, Al Gore is a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. He was appreciated for informing the world about the upcoming dangers of the climate change.

Early Life

Al Gore was born on March 31, 1948 as Albert Arnold Gore Jr. He was born in Washington DC to Pauline LaFon Gore and Albert Gore. His father Albert Gore served as a Democrat in the House from Tennessee and was also a part of the US Senate from 1953 to 1971. He was considered to be a possible nominee for the vice presidential elections from 1956 to 1960. On the other hand, his mother was the first female graduate from the Vanderbilt School Of Law.

Gore spent his childhood between hotel rooms in Washington and went to his family farm in summer, located in Carthage, Tennessee. He went to the Harvard and shared his room with future superstar Tommy Lee Jones. In June 1969, he earned his degree in government with high honors. His final thesis in college was one of the best works in his batch and discussed the impact of television on presidency conduct. Gore was an active participant in sports and also became the captain of his school football team. He showed great interest in painting and other forms of art.

Military Service

Al Gore was completely against the Vietnam War, however he mentioned that his sense of civic duty forced him to join the US Army in 1969. Gore was assigned to write for the base newspaper The Army Flier, as a military journalist, after some basic military training.

In November 1970, his father lost the re-election into the Senate, mostly due to his liberal opinions on issues involving Civil Rights and the Vietnam War. Gore was shipped to Vietnam, with 7 months left in his enlistment in January 1971. He served as a Army Engineer Command and as an Engineer Brigade in Long Binh and Bien Hoa respectively.


After returning to United States in 1971, Gore worked as a reporter for The Tennessean. He was later promoted to the city politics team where he uncovered bribery and political cases, which led to convictions. While working at the Tennessean, Gore also studied phenomenology and philosophy at the Vanderbilt University. He enrolled into the Vanderbilt School of Law in 1974.

In order to run for the US House from Tennessee, he quit the law school in March 1976. After being elected four times, he also became the first individual to feature on C-SPAN. Once Howard Baker, the Republican Majority Leader, vacated a seat in the US Senate, Gore successfully ran for it. In 1991, Gore pushed the Computer and Communication Act, which later led to the expansion of the Internet.

Vice Presidency

Al Gore made a bid, in 1988, for the Democratic presidency nomination. In spite of winning five southern states on a Super Tuesday, he still lost to Michael Dukakis. Gore stayed in the Senate until Bill Clinton, the presidential candidate in 1992, chose him as a running mate. They made it to the office that year and were re-elected in the year 1996.

During his time, he worked to cut down on government bureaucracy, however his reputation suffered when there was an investigation by the Justice Department, questioning his fund-raising campaigns.

Gore Vs Bush

Facing a primitive challenge by Bill Bradley, a former Senator, Gore won the presidential nomination in 2000. Gore picked Joseph Lieberman from Connecticut as his running mate, who was apparently the first Jew to ever receive a ticket for the National Party. Gore received the popular vote but accepted defeat against Republican George Bush. This was one of the most dramatic presidential elections in the United States, involving five weeks of complicated legal argument about the presidential voting and election procedures.

Personal Life

Al Gore was married to Tipper, and has four children. However the couple called it an end in 2010, after forty years of marriage. Currently, Gore is dating Democratic Party supporter and fellow environmentalist Mary Elizabeth Keadle. He now spends his time between his homes in San Francisco, Nashville and Tennessee.

Adolf Hitler Biography

Posted On September 16th, 2013 By Celebrity Biographies

Adolf Hitler Biography

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler was one of the most influential human voices and the founder of the Nazi party. He implemented and executed the Holocaust, the systematic execution and racial extermination of over 6 million European Jews, along with millions of other non-Aryans. Hitler was the Supreme Commander and Head of State of the Armed Forces, the “Fuhrer” or the guiding spirit of Germany’s Third Reich for 12 years, from 1933 to 1945.

Early Life

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 to Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Poelzl in Braunau Am Inn, Austria. His father was a 52-year-old customs official whereas his mother was a young peasant girl and his father’s third wife. As a child, Hitler was discontented, resentful, lazy and extremely moody. He was extremely hostile towards the strict rules set by his father. His mother was his only support, until she died of cancer in 1908.

He was a very good student and spent four years at a school in Realschule, Linz. At the age of 16, he left school with a dream of becoming a painter. He left home in October 1907 and went to Vienna to become an artist. The rejection at the Viennese Academy of Arts embittered young Hitler and he shaped this pathological hatred towards the modern Habsburg monarchy, liberalism, Marxists and Jews. From switching odd jobs to hawking sketches in taverns, Hitler would vent out his frustration to anyone who cared to listen to his ideas about a better Germany.

While living in Vienna, he got his first degree in politics, studying the demagogic ideologies of Karl Lueger, a popular Christian-social Mayor.

World War I

Hitler left Vienna in May 1913 and he joined the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment when the war was declared in August 1914. Although he started off as a dispatch runner, he proved to be courageous and received the Iron Cross (the second class award) for bravery. H continued to work as a soldier, but was severely injured by a grenade splinter in August 1918. He was then given the second Iron Cross (the first class award). Hitler was temporary blinded by a massive gas attack in October 1918. While convalescing in a hospital, he received the news that the war had ended and Germany was defeated. His resentment, anger and feelings of betrayal later shaped the times to come.

Rise As A Politician

After the end of the World War I, a lot of Germans felt betrayed by the government with their unexpected and sudden surrender. The after-effects of this war, including inflation, unemployment and daily struggle made it extremely difficult for average Germans to survive. In 1919, Hitler was appointed to work as a spy for an army organization. His duties were strictly “educational” and he was supposed to check on the rapidly increasing local political societies. While working on these groups, he liked one of them in September 1919. He enrolled into the group and was appointed as the 55th member. Hitler was soon leading the group.

Hitler As A Leader

Hitler possessed an amazing talent for oratory and he could slowly gather masses to follow him. Later, he introduced the new party symbol. By November 1921, Hitler was declared the “Fuhrer” and his movement had more than 3000 followers. Within 2 years, Hitler was confident that the Weimar Republic was about to collapse. Along with other nationalist groups and General Ludendorff, he made efforts to overthrow the Swiss Government in Munich. This is when the “Red Berlin” movement came into existence.

The Coup

Adolf Hitler strongly believed that he could create a stronger government in Germany and bring back the lost pride. So on November 9, 1923, he attempted a coup of the government, also called the “Beer Hall Putsch”. The mission failed and eventually, Hitler was sentenced imprisonment for five years. He was moved to the Landsberg prison and was released in nine months. He used this time to formulate future strategies and penned his book, which is now one of the all-time bestsellers, called “Mein Kampf”.

Rise To Power

After being released from the prison, he started on his path to attain ultimate power. Hitler wanted to compete for the presidential elections and by July 1932, he had acquired enough support to run the campaign. However he lost these elections against Paul Von Hindenburg, who later appointed Hitler as the chancellor on January 30, 1933. After the death of president Hindenburg in 1935, Hitler served as both, the chancellor as well as the president. He combined both these positions into one and the supreme leader was now referred to as the “Fuhrer”.

After gaining such power, Hitler started solidifying his position in Germany on legal terms. All those who disagreed with his proceedings were put into harsh concentration camps. Hitler ran massive campaigns to strengthen the German pride and blamed all their problems on Jews and Communists. The whole idea of “pan-Germanism” inspired him to combine the German population from all countries across Europe.

World War II

The world wanted to stay away from the possibility of another World War, however Hitler invaded Austria in 1938, without any battle. When his forces entered Poland, the world could no longer stand his domination and the World War II began in 1939. In addition to Nuremberg Laws and Kristallnacht, the Nazi party created an extensive system to eliminate the Jews from the German society.

Adolf Hitler is considered to be one of the most evil human beings in the history, especially because of the Holocaust. The Nazi party seemed unbeatable until the Battle of the Stalingrad in 1943. The Allied Army destroyed the German forces and Hitler was defeated.

Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun, his long-time mistress, on April 29, 1945. They both wrote their political testament and the last will. The next day, on April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler committed suicide with his wife Eva Braun.

Abraham Lincoln Biography

Posted On August 9th, 2011 By Celebrity Biographies

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of United States and also headed the country during the Civil War. He shall always be remembered for his efforts to abolish slavery and for his ability to rule a divided nation. The Gettysburg Address, the Emancipation Proclamation and two other inaugural addresses made by Lincoln are considered to be the best speeches to be delivered by any American Leader.

Early Life

Abraham Lincoln was born on 12th February, 1809 to Nancy and Thomas Lincoln. The family lived in Hardin County, Kentucky in a small log cabin of a farm. After two years, they moved into a farm of Knob Creek. Lincoln went to a school which was located two miles away from this farm and this is where he learnt the basics of writing, reading and mathematics.

In 1818, Abraham Lincoln lost his mother to a terrible disease called the “milk sickness”. The family started falling apart after the death of Nancy Lincoln and hence Abraham as well as his sister had to share much of the workload. His father later got married to Sarah Bush Johnson, who moved into the family with her three children. The family moved on to several places for better opportunities, however once Abraham grew up, he moved to New Salem and was later in charge of a store and a mill.

Public Life

While working at the mill, he soon grew popular amongst the masses and people came to him to enjoy his stories. Abraham soon became popular for his  little speeches and he was welcomed by the New Salem Debating Society. During the Black Hawk War, between hostile Native Americans and United States, Lincoln was elected as the captain of the region by the volunteers.

Lincoln announced himself as the candidate for the Illinois Legislature, soon after the war. Although he lost the election, he received about 277 votes out of 300, in the precinct of New Salem. He made another attempt in 1834 and was then elected at the Legislature. Most politicians during that time were impressed by the campaign skills used by Lincoln. He served four years in the Legislature and then became the party leader. After reading several law books, he started practicing law by September 1836. He was married to Mary Todd on 2nd November, 1842.

The 16th President

The Republican National Convention, in 1960, chose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate to fight presidency elections. With a recent formation of the Democratic party and the Constitutional Union Party, it was certain that Lincoln was to participate in the election. After Lincoln was elected, several parts of the country reacted harshly on the president’s stand on slavery. His tenure as a President was faced with early failures and he had to withstand the occurrence of the Civil War. Lincoln was elected again in 1864 and after the Confederate Army ended the Civil War, John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln while he was addressing the crowd in Ford Theatre in Washington. Abraham Lincoln died on 15th April, 1965, the day after he was shot. Although the reasons behind his assassination are still unknown, he has managed to build a prominent place for himself in American history.

Nelson Mandela Biography

Posted On July 10th, 2010 By Celebrity Biographies

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela is one of the most popular names in the world. He served as the South African president from 1994 to 1999. Before his act as a president, he led the armed wing of ANC (African National Congress) called the Umkhonto We Sizwe. Being arrested in 1962, he spent 27 years in prison (most of them on Robben Island), serving charges of sabotage. After his release on February 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela involved himself into negotiations, finally leading to multi-racial democracy in the year 1994. He is also referred to as ‘Madiba’ in South Africa, which is an honorary title given to him by the other elderly members of his claim. During the span of four decades, he received more than 250 awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

Early Life

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on 18th July, 1918. He was born in a small village called Mvezo, located in the province of Umtata. Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, Mandela’s father was the chief of this town and as soon as he protested against the colonial authorities, the chief was deprived of his rights and the family was forced to migrate to Qunu.

Nelson Mandela’s father had four wives with a total of thirteen children, nine girls and four boys. Nelson was a child of his father’s third wife called Nosekeni Fanny. His middle name ‘Rolihlahla’ meant ‘pulling a branch of a tree’, but in this context it meant ‘troublemaker’. Mandela became the first and the only member of the family to attend school and his teacher ‘Miss Mdingane’ gave him his English name ‘Nelson’. At the age of 9, Mandela lost his father due to tuberculosis. Thereafter, regent Jongintaba took care of him as a guardian.

Nelson attended the Wesleyan Mission School, which was located next to the regent’s palace. According to the Thembu custom, he attended the Clarkebury Boarding School at the age of 16. Instead of the usual three years, Mandela completed his Junior Certificate in two years. At the age of 19, he was highly interested in running and boxing at school. He later enrolled himself at the Fort Hare University for a Bachelor of Arts program. During this course, he met his lifelong friend Oliver Tambo. By the end of first year in college, he was actively involved with the Student’s Representative Council. After consistent boycott against the university policies, he was asked to leave the university and he could return only if he agreed to accept the conditions of the university. During his term at the prison, he took an external program in Bachelor of Laws from the University of London.

On his return from the Fort Hare University, the regent arranged his marriage and in protest to the arrangement, he relocated to Johannesburg. As soon as he reached Johannesburg, he was employed as a guard at the local mine. He then worked at the Witkin, Sidelsky and Edelman law firm in Johannesburg.

Political Career

Nelson Mandela actively involved himself into politics after the Afrikaner-dominated party won the elections in 1948. He fought for the anti-apartheid causes and led the Defiance campaign of ANC in 1952 as well as the Congress of People in 1955. During these years, Nelson Mandela along with his lawyer Oliver Tambo started a law firm that provided free counsel to loads of blacks who lacked lawyer representation. Nelson Mandela was greatly influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s approach towards truth and non-violence. He also attended the 100th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi at a conference in New Delhi in the year 2007.

Mandela became the leader of the ANC wing in the year 1961. He became the coordinator for the sabotage campaigns against government and military targets. He also made plans for a guerrilla war in case if the sabotage failed. ANC members as well as Mandela were barred an entry from United States until July 2008. They required a special waiver from the Secretary of State in US since they were designated as terrorists due to their apartheid regime.

On June 12, 1964, Mandela was sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was imprisoned at the Robben Island, where he spent 18 years out of his total 27 years in prison. While in prison, he gained a lot of reputation as an important leader in South Africa. The prisoners were separated by race and the blacks received the fewest privileges. He was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in March 1982. President Botha offered freedom to Nelson Mandela in February 1985 on the condition that he and his party members must give up armed struggle.

Marriage and Family

Nelson Mandela has been married three times and he has fathered a total of six children. He has 20 grand-children and an increasing number of great grand kids. All of his children were educated in the United World College. He was first married to Evelyn Ntoko Mase and their marriage lasted for 13 years, before they decided to break up in 1957. His second marriage was to Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, who happened to the first black worker in Johannesburg. The marriage ended due to separation in 1992. Thereafter, he remarried to Graça Machel née Simbine on his 80th birthday. Mandela still stays at Qunu with his royal nephew.

Nelson Mandela was elected as the oldest president of South Africa and he resumed work at the age of 75 in the year 1994. He refused to stand for the second term and took retirement in 1999. He was then succeeded by Thabo Mbeki.

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